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REST model: Renewable Energy Scenarios for Transport

There is an increasingly pressing need for less carbon-intensive forms of transportation. Within the EU, policy objectives in this area include the 10% target of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), the 6% target of the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) and the aim  to cut overall transport emissions by 60% by 2050. Carbon emission cuts can be achieved not just through more fuel-efficient vehicles and reduced transport demand, but also through a transition towards more sustainable fuels in all transport modes, such as biofuels, (renewably sourced) electricity, hydrogen and less carbon-intensive fossil fuels.

Aim and output
With CE Delft’s REST model, users can calculate how alternative renewable energy strategies contribute to meeting EU policy targets (RED,  FQD). Calculations can be made for the vehicle fleet of the EU or the 27 Member States. For each vehicle category, the predicted energy consumption in 2020 is used to derive biofuel blending options.

A wide range of parameters  can be varied in the model:

  • composition of low and high blends (in vol% per biofuel)
  • share of single- and double-counting biofuels
  • market share of niche vehicles (in %)
  • multiplication factors for biofuels from waste and residues and for renewable electricity in road transport
  • reduction of energy demand in the transport sector
Model output
Besides indicating how user scenarios succeed in securing RED and FQD targets, the model also calculates implied requirements for biofuels (distinguishing between single- and double-counting biofuels) and renewable electricity (for road as well as non-road transport). For each vehicle category  the actual blended amount of biofuel/energy as well as the contribution to the target is presented.

Potential research questions
  • is it possible to meet the 10% RED target by blending B7 and E10 in fuel for conventional passenger vehicles?
  • What will happen if a proportion of cars are replaced by flex-fuel vehicles running on E85?
  • What volumes of biogas are required to run 5% of all buses on bio-CNG?
  • How does a multiplication factor of 3 for biofuels from waste and residues affect the FQD target?
  • If biofuels supply is limited, what reduction in transport energy demand is needed to meet the 10% RED target?

More information

For more information, please contact Anouk van Grinsven
Anouk van Grinsven

Model calculations already have been used in the recent studies of CE Delft: