External Costs of Transport in Europe
Update Study for 2008
This study provides an overview of the external cost of transport in 27 European countries, based on the latest available transport figures and recent scientific findings in the field of external cost calculation. Estimates for total, average and marginal external costs are presented for all main modes of transport. This study is an update of the previous UIC-study on external costs: External costs of transport in Europe by INFRAS/IWW (2004). The study builds on the IMPACT Handbook on external costs, which was developed in 2007 for the European Commission by CE Delft and partners and which is since the de facto standard on external cost estimation of transport in Europe.